In Vitro Ferts
Health & Disease
Regulations for Oocyte Surgery
The following guidelines were developed by the Veterinary
staff here and outline regulations for non-mammalian surgery. Your institute's
procedures with the frogs should be in accordance with the Guide for the Care and use
of Laboratory Animals and the Animal Welfare Act, as well as
conforming to contemporary standards of care and use of experimental animals. All
non-mammalian surgery should be performed using aseptic technique and appropriate
anesthetic and analgesic techniques to prevent pain and minimize distress to the animal.
Anesthesia in Frogs
Tricaine methane sulfonate (MS222) is the anesthetic of choice.
Dissolve the powder in deionized water of an induction tank at a dose of 200-500
mg/L for tadpoles and 500mg-2g/L for adults. Concentrations of over 500 mg/L should
be buffered using 10-25 mEq/L (420-1050 mg/L) NaHCO3. The unbuffered
solution is acidic, predominately ionized, and poorly absorbed, resulting in a
prolonged induction time. Prepare a fresh working solution of MS222 each
There is no evidence demonstrating appropriate analgesia with
hypothermia in amphibians, although the animals become torpid. Thus ice or ice water
is not permissible as the sole anesthetic agent.
Depth of anesthesia can be monitored through loss of the righting
response and loss of response to painful stimuli. Respiratory movement will slow and
then cease as anesthesia deepens, but alternate routes of gas exchange in amphibians (skin
and buccopharyngeal cavity can suffice for short procedures). Once the animal is
anesthetized, remove it from he solution. Keep the skin moist. Anesthesia will
persist for 10-20 minutes, sufficient time for ovarian biopsy, host transfer, or other
short procedures. For longer procedures, immerse the animal in a weaker solution of
MS222, or drip dilute solution onto the skin.
Benzocaine, although sometimes cited as a possible anesthetic agent,
should only be used for euthanasia.
Aseptic Technique for Oocyte Harvest in Frogs
|Although a dedicated facility is not necessary, the
frog surgical area must be a portion of the room that can be easily sanitized. The
surface should be clean, uncluttered, and free from overhanging objects and
chemicals. Surgery can be conducted in an uncluttered laminar flow hood. The
area should be wiped down with a disinfectant (10% Clorox, Alcide, Lysol, Staphene,
Cidex) before and after use.|
|Instruments must be sterilized before use in survival
surgery. A sterile wrap must be provided as an aseptic surface on which to place
instruments during the procedure. Acceptable sterilization includes steam (autoclave
reaching 115 °C), gas sterilization (ethylene oxide), ionizing radiation, or soaking in
the following solution for the appropriate length of time.|
|Glutaraldehyde (Cydex Plus): 10-30 minutes, less
corrosive; rinse with sterile water after disinfecting.|
|The best skin prep: The endogenous antibacterial
mucus layer over the skin should be disturbed as little as possible. Using a stream
of Nolvasan gently blot only the surgical area.|
Intraoperative and Postoperative Care
The skin should be kept moist during surgery. The skin is highly permeable and
water loss will be significant if the skin dries out. The frog can be kept in a
shallow dish of water, propped at one end, containing the maintenance concentration of
Skin closures should always be with non-absorbable sutures.
If the anesthetic agent was added to the water, the frog should be rinsed in fresh frog
water for recovery. The water should be shallow or use a damp cloth during recovery,
as frogs can drown before complete consciousness can be restored.
Xylazine hydrochloride at 10 mg/Kg injected intracoelomically provides analgesia for
potentially painful procedures for up to 24 hours.
[ Back ] [ Next ]